Rinjani nationalpark Lombok Indonesia 3,726m
The park covers an area of 41,330 ha on the northern part of Lombok and locates the three administrative district of West, East and Central Lombok. The area covers 12,357.67 ha in the west, 22,152.88 ha in the east and 6,819.45 ha in central Lombok. Rinjani dominates the National Park of Lombok, an island east of Bali on the Indonesian archipelago. At 3726m it is the second highest volcano in Indonesia, part of the infamous ring of fire that encircles the basin of the Pacific. Within the crater is the spectacular Segara Anak lake and the still – active volcano Gunung Baru (2,363m).
It is surrounded by further 66,000 ha of Protection Forest also covers the three administrative districts. The park ecosystem is in the transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Wallace zone). Average rainfall is about 3,000mm annually.
Gunung Rinjani is rich in variety of flora and fauna and vegetation types. There are 114 families and more than 500 several of floras found and about 50 species of plant that can be used for traditional medicine. While fauna in Gunung Rinjani is about 12 mammal and reptile species, more than 50 birds’ species and more 50 several of butterflies which some are protected and has limited area of spread. On the South Western side of mountain is the most eastern extent of primary rainforest in Nusa Tenggara. This gives way to monsoon forest and drier climate in the east, and savannah in the north east. Notable flora includes the everlasting edelweiss flower (Anaphalis viscida), tiger orchid (Vanda sp) alang-alang grass (Imperata cylindrical), cemara tress (Casuarina trifolia and Casuarina ocidentale).
Gunung Rinjani, one of the over 50 National Parks through out Indonesia and 21 become National Park model included Gunung Rinjani National Park, it was established in 1997. It is valued and protected for its spiritual as well natural values, and is worshipped by thousands of Balinese as well as Sasak pilgrims. Hot springs near the Lake are sought after for their healing powers.
Over 38 villages spread out in 12 sub-districts surround Rinjani and there are many routes up to the mountain, but the main access is from Sembalun Lawang to the East. The challenging three-day Rinjani Trek route from Senaru to crater rim (Pelawangan), down to the stunning crater lake then on to Sembalun Lawang, is considered one of the best treks in South East Asia. Those heading for the summit usually prefer to start in Sembalun Lawang.
The village of Senaru is the main gateway to Mt. Rinjani National Park, the most popular start point for the three day Rinjani Trek up Indonesia’s second highest volcanic peak (3,762 m). For the people of Lombok, Sasak and Balinese alike, the volcano is revered as a sacred place and the abode of Gods. Within the spectacular crater, the Segara Anak Lake is destination of many pilgrims who place offerings in nearby hot spring.
A model for ecotourism in Indonesia, the community-based activities are focused on the Rinjani Trek Centre in Senaru and Rinjani Information Centre in Sembalun Lawang,
the most popular starting points for the tough trek. Developed with New Zealand Government assistance since 1999, the Rinjani Trek Centre and Rinjani Information Centre embody under one roof (satu atap) the unique partnership of the National Park, tourism industry and local communities that has been forged to manage and protect the Rinjani mountain environment. The programmer has been successful and in 2004, the Rinjani Trek won the 2004 Destination Stewardship Award for “the tourism destination that best demonstrates effective protection its natural and cultural environment.”